In addition to the price paid by motorists at the pump, drivers and non-drivers alike spend additional money for each gallon of gas -- in the form of direct and indirect taxes and losses. Every year those subsidies cost America billions of dollars. The exact dollar amount is difficult to calculate, but every study done shows that it is at least twice the amount motorists pay at the pump.
1. Police, fire, ambulance; road construction & maintenance; other local government - paid for with taxes.
2. Property taxes lost from land cleared for freeways
3. Parking - free or cheaper parking is paid for with other taxes, or more expensive goods or services.
4. Air, water, land pollution - adds to medical expenses, loss of species and cleanup costs.
5. Noise, vibration damage to structures - adds to medical expenses and repair costs.
6. Global warming - adds to medical expenses, loss of species and other costs.
7. Petroleum supply line policing, security, petroleum production subsidies - increases taxes for defense.
8. Trade deficit, infrastructure deficit - increases costs of goods.
9. Sprawl, loss of transportation options - increases personal and corporate transportation costs.
10. Uncompensated auto accidents - increases personal costs.
11. Congestion- increases personal costs and losses.
Click on this link to read the rest of this US report: Sierra Club